Isoflavones - a type of estrogen-like substance found in soya
beans and soy-based foods (where the two primary isoflavones are daidzein and genistein), which could alleviate menopause symptoms.
APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) - a US government institution, which resides in the United States Department of Agriculture and governs the quality of licensed biological cultivation.
Trans Fats - hydrogenated fats. Hydrogenation, developed in the early 1900`s, is the chemical process of adding molecules of hydrogen directly to unsaturated fatty acids such as those found in vegetable oil. Hydrogenated oils provide important stability and textural qualities to food. The spreadability and solidity of margarines, flakiness of pie crust, creaminess of puddings, and crunchy coating of French fries are attributes supplied by hydrogenated oil ingredients. In the process of partial hydrogenation, a few hydrogen atoms are transferred from same-side bonding in a double bond to the opposite side, creating another pattern of fatty acids, referred to as `trans`, which means `opposite`. The trans fat constituent of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils can vary widely, according to the degree of hydrogenation that has been used and the amount used for that specific hydrogenated product. For instance, the quantity of trans fat in a product that contains mildly hydrogenated vegetable oils that is listed low in listed ingredients can be nutritionally insignificant. When vegetable or other oil is shown in the list of ingredients as `hydrogenated`, this means that the oil has been fully hydrogenated, or totally treated with hydrogen molecules, a process that creates a saturated fatty acid containing no trans fats. Trans fats are found naturally-occurring in dairy products and meats such as lamb and beef. Nevertheless, the main trans fat sources in the U.S. diet are partially hydrogenated oils, which are found in foods such as fried foods, pastries, cookies, and crackers. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS)` Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently established that trans fats are similar to saturated fats and foods that contain cholesterol with regard to the way they affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL or `bad cholesterol`) levels in the blood. In addition, certain research studies suggest that a larger consumption of trans fatty acids may reduce high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The mean average trans fatty acid consumption within the US is 2.6 % of calories, compared with 12 percent of total caloric intake from saturated fats.
Bulimia Nervosa - a psychological disorder characterized by compulsive binging on food (eating large amounts very quickly), with a sense of lack of control during the episode, and feelings of self-condemnation based on discontent with one`s physical appearance. This disorder has two categories: purging and non-purging. In the first type, the person compulsively voids the body of the foods consumed by self-inflicted regurgitation, or frequently misusing laxatives or diuretics. On the other hand, in the non-purging type, the individual prevents weight gain through severe dieting, fasting, or extreme physical exercise. This binging on vast quantities of food followed by self-inflicted vomiting, and experiencing guilt, depression, and self-condemnation, are frequently also related to with anorexia nervosa. In several instances, there is no noticeable weight loss and the disease might not be recognized as such until the individual turns to someone for help.
Tendon - the fibrous, cord-like tissue which connects muscles to bones; when a tendon becomes inflamed, the condition is referred to as tendonitis.
Lifestyle Change - modifying or even getting rid of long-held behaviors of foods eaten or exercise and maintaining the new habits over a prolonged period (several months or years).
Cardiovascular - connected with the heart and blood vessels as a unified system in the body: heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular).
Adverse Reaction Monitoring System (ARMS) - a system operated by the FDA, which tracks and scrutinizes all grievances from persons or their medical practitioners that are suspected to be directly associated with a specific food, additives in the form of food coloring, emulsifying agents or preservatives or vitamin and mineral supplements. The ARMS computerized database enables officials to determine if alleged adverse reactions to a substance are an actual public health risk connected with an item of food, so that the FDA can take suitable measures.
Helix - a spiral staircase-like shape with a repetitive pattern described by 2 simultaneous activities (rotation and translation). Biological polymers usually exhibit this kind of structure (the DNA molecule has a double-helix shape).
Layered Eating - a technique in weight management, in which foods that add bulk to the diet but contain few calories are eaten first, after which foods that are high in calories but low in volume are consumed. This is a rational progression of filling up by consuming certain foods/ liquids before more fattening foods are consumed.
Weightlifting - a sport where contenders vie to heft weights (mounted on steel bars) upto the chest or over their heads.
Meridia - an orally administered medication for weight loss, which suppresses hunger by inhibiting the re-absorption of relevant hormones.
Waist-to-Hip Ratio - a ratio that decides the degree of over-weight. Waist-to-hip ratio is considered to be a more authentic harbinger of the chances of heart attack than Body Mass Index (BMI). In order to calculate the waist-to-hip ratio, measure the waist and hips (in inches) and divide the former by the latter. A waist-to-hip ratio less than 0.8 in women or 0.9 in men is said to be average. A waist-to-hip ratio that is higher than average indicates the chances of cardiac disease.
Nitrite - a risk-free food additive that is a centuries-old method to preserve meat and poultry, as well as fish. It also is responsible for the inimitable flavor and aroma, color and texture of processed meats like hotdogs. As nitrite immunizes cured meats against the most fatal food-borne bacterium ever known, Clostridium (C.) botulinum, its utilization is supported by the public health community. The human body produces far larger amounts of nitrite in comparison to nitrites that are used as food additives. Nitrates ingested in foods like carrots and green vegetables are converted to form nitrite by the digestive process. The presence of nitrite in the body is the key to promoting the coagulation of blood, healing wounds and burns, and improving the immune system in order to kill cells that cause tumors or abnormal growths.
Prevalence - the proportion of people in a population affected with a particular disease at a specified time.
Nutrient Density - the calculation of the proportion of nutrients provided (in relationship to the calories contained) in a specific serving of food. Nutrient dense foods are those that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and relatively fewer calories. The opposite of nutrient density is calorie density, which are foods high in calories with relatively few nutrients.
HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup) - food preparations characteristically containing 42 percent, 55 percent, or 90 percent fructose (the rest of the carbohydrate consisting largely of glucose), according to the product application. High fructose corn syrups are utilized in the manufacture of food products such as soda pops and similar drinks or cake mixes.
Sugar Alcohols - substances used to sweeten foods without the addition of sucrose. Sugar alcohols often used in lieu of sugars include sorbitol, xylitol, and mannitol. A lot of fruits and vegetables contain sugar alcohols naturally. They are also found in some varieties of sugar-free chewing gum, hard candies, jams, and jellies. Besides adding a sweet flavor, sugar alcohols also add a good texture to food products, help foods remain moist, prevent browning when food is heated and give a cooling effect to the taste of food. They supply 4 calories for each gram, but are absorbed slowly and only partially, and thus demand little or no insulin for synthesis. Sugar alcohols are not cavity-producing because they are not metabolized by bacteria that contribute to decay of the tooth enamel.
Artheriosclerosis - refer to Arteriosclerosis.
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