Static Stretch - an uncomplicated muscle stretch that goes just
to the point of gentle tension and is held in the same position for a specific duration (usually 20 to 30 seconds), without moving or bouncing.
Lipoprotein - compounds of protein, which carry fats and fat-like substances, such as cholesterol, in the bloodstream.
Calorie Balance - the numeric value that computes the difference between the number of calories a person eats (calorie intake) and the number of calories that are used up (calorie expenditure). If the calories eaten are equivalent to the calories used, people continue weighing the same. Eating more calories than the amount burned results in weight gain. Expending more calories than the amount eaten results in weight loss.
Collagen Hydrolysate - a useful constituent of gelatin that might help alleviate some of the symptoms related to osteoarthritis.
Acetone - a chemical that forms when the body breaks down fats rather than glucose for energy. Levels increase and acetone `leaks` into the urine and is breathed out, which produces the distinctive `fruity` smell. (Look at `ketone bodies`.)
VO2 Max - The maximum amount of oxygen a person can consume during a workout or exercise. This measure is routinely used as a predictor of potential in competitive sports that demand high endurance.
Binge Eating Disorder - an eating disorder involving episodes of out-of-control consumption of large quantities of food.
Whole Grains - the complete seed of grain, including the bran (outer coating or `shell`), germ (nutrient-rich core) and endosperm (storehouse of complex carbohydrates). The health advantage provided by whole grains includes the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, which is the result of the synergetic combination of fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals (beneficial nutrients derived from plants) found in whole grains.
Abductors - the muscles in the inside of the thigh that draw the legs together. They connect the hips (pelvis) and the thighbone (femur). This group of muscles is used when one is inline skating, skiing or doing the frog kick during a breaststroke (in which the knees are drawn up close to the hips and the feet are thrust outward and backward so that the legs come together when fully extended).
Adrenal - a flattened, roughly triangular gland of the endocrine system that secretes essential hormones, including adrenaline (epinephrine) and cortisol (the body`s natural stress-fighting and anti-inflammatory hormone).
Cyclamate - a low calorie artificial sweetening agent that is thirty times as sweet as sucrose, free of calories and heat stable, and works synergistically when combined with additional sweetening agents. It is approved for tabletop use in Canada and over fifty nations in Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Since `70, however, cyclamate use has been banned within the USA based on a study that alleged that cyclamate may be related to the development of cancer of the bladder in rats. Although seventy-five subsequent test studies have failed to show that cyclamate contains cancer-causing substances, the sweetener has yet to be re-authorized for use within the U.S.
Lipids - a group of chemical compounds that includes triglycerides (fats and oils), phospholipids, and sterols.
Insoluble Fiber - a type of dietary fiber found in wheat bran, cauliflower, cabbage, and other vegetables and fruits. Typically, insoluble fiber is not water-soluble. It includes cellulose, some hemicelluloses, and lignin, which help move foods through the digestive system, and thereby may cut down the health risks of cancers of the rectum and colon. It might also provide some protection against breast cancer.
Artificial Sweeteners - substances that impart sweetness to foods but provide very little energy, or none at all, to the muscles, tissues, and cells of the body. They include acesulfame, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose. Saccharin is the earliest of low-calorie sweeteners and contains no calories. Acesulfame potassium (or Ace-K) is also used in several foods & beverages and was additionally authorized as a flavor enhancer in 2003. Ace-k is non-caloric, can withstand high temperatures and, when blended with any additional dietary sweetening agents, has an exponential result that helps improve the taste, sweetness, and shelf-life of low calorie foods and beverages. Aspartame is also extensively utilized in foods and beverages and as a packaged sweetener to be served at table. 4 calories for every gram but because it`s sweetening capacity is 200 times greater than that of white sugar, a miniscule quantity of aspartame is necessary to sufficiently give foods or beverages a sweet taste. Sucralose remains the only low-calorie sweetening agent which manufactured by the selective chlorination of sucrose (sugar). It is nearly six hundred times sweeter than sugar, has zero calories, and is extremely stable under a broad range of processing conditions. The FDA has accepted sucralose as a food enhancing agent in foods and beverages, in cooking as well as baking, and also as a tabletop sweetener.
Cellulose - a complex carbohydrate comprised of glucose units linked together in a form that humans cannot digest.
Biological Activity - the effect (change in metabolic activity upon living cells) caused by specific compounds or agents. For instance, the medicine acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) causes thinning of the blood, that is, take longer to coagulate.