Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) - a systematic
method employed in the food & beverage sector to pinpoint possible food safety risks. The basic approach under HACCP to take precautionary measures against food-borne diseases and to emphasize high quality standards is to identify the potential hazards and attempt to avoid them. Rather than putting the burden on the government to discover that there is indeed a problem that concerns food safety, HACCP moves accountability to the industry to ensure that the food it produces is free of pollutants. Food manufacturers will have to prevent bacterial contamination from occurring as the basic quality measure. HACCP promotes food safety through these principles: Be aware of the likely health hazards for consumers in a given product; Know about the crucial milestones in the food-processing cycle (CCPs or `critical control points`) which are the points when the health-hazards may take place; Set up security actions to forestall the health risk from happening; Run constant checks and make certain the protective precautions are in effect; Arrange an appropriate resolution when monitoring identifies a problem; Set up in-depth record-keeping to document the supervisory actions and remedies taken; Corroborate that the whole system is functional.
Layered Eating - a logical approach to weight control, in which low- calorie, high-volume foods are ingested as the `first layer`, after which foods that are high in calories but low in volume are consumed. Layered eating is a logical procedure of taking the edge off one`s appetite with low-calorie or high-fiber foods and / or liquids before high-calorie foods are ingested.
Obese - describes a person with excessive body weight due to an abnormally high, unhealthy amount of body fat. There are several methods to recognize whether a person is obese, although experts are of the opinion that a person`s BMI (body mass index) is the most accurate estimate of the amount of fat in the body for adults as well as for children. Obese is generally indicated by a BMI of 30+. There may be exceptions. As an example, an athlete may show a higher than normal body mass index but not be overweight.
Crustacean - aquatic arthropods belonging the aquatic class Crustacea, which include crabs, shrimps, lobsters, and barnacles. They characteristically have segmented bodies, hard external shells and paired, jointed limbs.
Comorbidity - a potentially deadly side-effect caused by an illness or health condition. With particular reference to morbid obesity (severe obesity with a BMI of over 40), excessive buildup of fatty tissue could cause comorbidities, like diabetes and SCA (sudden cardiac arrest).
Natural Toxins - an organic substance (for instance, produced in some cases by pathogenic microorganisms), which is lethal to some other living organisms.
Anthocyanidins - a type of flavonoid (water-soluble pigment) present in purplish-blue fruits, which provides the health advantages of neutralizing free radicals, and, it is likely, providing protection against cancer.
Obesity - abnormally high quantity of body weight and body fat that is much greater than what is deemed good for health: 20 percent over normal body weight. An individual`s body weight is determined by a combination of: hereditary, biological, behavioral, environmental impacts, cultural, and social and economic influences. Explorations into the cause of obesity indicate that energy intake, irrespective of macronutrient source, plays a key role in body weight. For example, while the percent of calories from fats has declined in the U.S. diet, there is no proof that body weight is also dipping. And yet, research has shown that a substantial decrease in the percentage of fat in the total caloric count will result in a minor loss of body weight in the case of people who have normal body weight or are moderately obese. A few scientists suggest that the distribution and amount of an individual`s body fat is a significant determinant of risk of certain diseases and, therefore, should be considered when defining overweight. Abdominal fat has been linked to a greater health risk than fat in the thighs or hips. Therefore, calculations of waist-to-hip ratio are preferred by some health experts to help diagnose whether a person is overweight.
RDI (Reference Daily Intakes) - dietary reference values that are used on all current US Nutrition Facts labels regarding vitamins, minerals, and protein, on the basis of nutrient values that best represent the minimum needs of the general population.
Hemoglobin - the oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen in the blood.
Physical Activity - any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity could include a scheduled activity such as walking, running, tennis, or any other sports. Physical exercise may also entail other daily activities like housework, yard work, walking the dog, and the like. It is recommended that adults get at least 30 minutes and children get at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity on five to six days of the week. Moderate physical activity is any activity that needs about as much energy as a two-mile walk in half an hour.
Callus - a thickening of or toughness of part of the skin resulting from excessive pressure and / or abrasion.
Polyunsaturated Fat - a highly unsaturated fat which is liquid at room temperature. Fats which are present in foods are combinations of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and saturated fatty acids (SAFAs). Foods that are the richest sources of polyunsaturated fats are corn, soybean, and safflower oils, and many types of nuts. They have the identical amounts of calories as do other types of fat and, if eaten in excess, could contribute to weight gain.
NIDDM - Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes.
Control Group - the group of participants in a research study that form the basis of evaluation so as to test whether an observation or treatment works. In an experimental study, this is the group that does not get the experimental treatment. Subjects are as similar as possible to subjects in the experimental treatment or test group.
Simple Carbohydrates - single molecule sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose. They are named `simple` sugars because their chemical structure consists of only 1 sugar molecule (called `monosaccharide`) or 2 sugar molecules (called `disaccharides`), as against complex carbohydrates, which consist of several molecules.
Sodium Nitrite - a kind of salt utilized for curing fish and in making smoked or cured meats. It acts as a preservative and food additive that provides permanent color to processed foods. Sodium nitrite is able to blend in with chemical secretions found in the stomach to form nitrosamine, a carcinogenic substance.
Monounsaturated Fat - fat made up almost entirely of monounsaturated fatty acids. Fats found in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fat is naturally present in canola oil, olive oil and olives, nuts, seeds, and avocados. Ingesting food that includes higher levels of monounsaturated fat instead of saturated fat may assist in lowering cholesterol and reduce coronary disease risk. Nevertheless, this fat contains the same caloric count as polyunsaturated and saturated fats, and, if eaten in excess, could contribute to weight gain.
Blood Sugar - also called blood glucose, means glucose present in the blood.
Hypoglycemia - a lower than normal amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. This takes place when a diabetic patient has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or has exercised without extra food. A person with hypoglycemia may feel nervous, tremulous, debilitated, or hot and clammy, and have a headache, blurred vision, and a craving for food. Ingesting small quantities of table sugar, sweetened fruit juice, or food with table sugar will most often make the patient improve within 10 to 15 minutes.